List of Abbreviations

AHOMAR, Homens e Mulheres do Mar Association

API, American Petroleum Institute

ATS, Alien Tort Statute

BRICS, Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

CDM, Clean Development Mechanism

CO2, Carbon dioxide

COP, Conference of Parties

CPC, Congress for Progressive Change

CPF, Central Oil and Gas Processing Facility

CSCEC, China State Construction Engineering Corporation

deg C, Degrees Celcius (Centigrade)

DPR, Directorate of Petroleum Resources

EIA, Environmental Impact assessment

EITI , Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

EMP, Environmental Management Plan

ERA, Environmental Rights Action

FAAN,Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organisation

FEPA, Federal Environmental Protection Agency

FPSO, Floating Production and Storage and Offloading

GDP, Gross Domestic Product

GON, Government of Nigeria

HNDC, Hope for Niger Delta Campaign

HYPREP, Hydrocarbon Pollution Restoration Project

IJV, Incorporated Joint Ventures

ILO, International Labour Organisation

INDC, Intended Nationally Determined Contributions

IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IYC, Ijaw Youth Congress

JTF, Joint Military Taskforce

LCA, Long-term Cooperative Action

LGA, Local Government Area

LNG, Liquid Natural Gas

LPG, Liquefied Petroleum Gas

MAN, Manufacturers Association of Nigeria

MEND, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta

MOSOP, Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People

NAFDAC, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control

NAP, National Action Programme

NAPEP, National Poverty Eradication Programme

NASS, National Assembly

NDDC, Niger Delta Development Commission

NDES, Niger Delta Environmental Survey

NDLF, Niger Delta Liberation Force

NEITI, Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

NESREA, National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency

NIALS, Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

NNPC, Nigerian National Petroleum Company

NOSDRA, Nigerian National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency

NRAN, No REDD in Africa Network

OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OPEC, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

PANPP, Pan-African Non-Petroleum Producers Association

PDP, Peoples Democratic Party

PIB, Petroleum Industry Bill

REDD, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

REDUC, Refineria Duque de Caxias

SADC, Southern Africa Development Community

SAGRC, South African Green Revolutionary Council

SEC, US Securities and Exchange Commission

SNEPCO, Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production Company

SON, Standards Organisation of Nigeria

SPDC, Shell Petroleum Development Company

SUDAPET, Sudan National Petroleum Corporation

TMDB, Transvaal and Delagoa Bay Mine

TNC, Transnational Corporation

UNCCD, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

UNEP, United Nations Environment Program

UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

USAID, United States Agency for International Development

WHO, World Health Organisation


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